Serotype and anti-microbial resistance trends among bovine Salmonella isolates from samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in central New York, 2007-2021


Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of acute enteritis in people, and dairy cattle are an important reservoir of this pathogen. The objective of this study was to analyse serotype and anti-microbial resistance trends of Salmonella isolated from dairy cattle in the United States between 2007 and 2021.

Methods and Results

We collected data for bovine Salmonella isolates obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC). We analysed 5114 isolates for serotype trends, and a subset of 2521 isolates tested for anti-microbial susceptibility were analysed for resistance trends. The most frequently identified serotypes were Salmonella Cerro, Dublin, Typhimurium, Montevideo, 4,[5],12:i:-, and Newport. Among these serotypes, a Cochran–Armitage trend test determined there was a significant increase in the proportion of isolates serotyped as Salmonella Dublin (p < 0.0001) and Montevideo (p < 0.0001) over time. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of isolates serotyped as Salmonella Cerro (p < 0.0001), Typhimurium (p < 0.0001), and Newport (p < 0.0001). For the anti-microbial resistance (AMR) analysis, we found an overall increase in the proportion of multi-drug-resistant isolates over time (p = 0.009). There was a significant increase in the proportion of isolates resistant to ampicillin (p = 0.007), florfenicol (p = 0.0002), and ceftiofur (p < 0.0001) and a marginal increase in resistance to enrofloxacin (p = 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of isolates resistant to spectinomycin (p = 0.0002), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (p = 0.01), sulphadimethoxine (p = 0.003), neomycin (p < 0.0001), and gentamicin (p = 0.0002).


Our results provide evidence of an increase in resistance to key anti-microbial agents, although the observed trends were driven by the sharp increase in the proportion of Salmonella Dublin isolates over time.


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