Results of this study support a potential detrimental interaction between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.
Periodontal disease (PD) can adversely affect glycaemic control in humans. However, it is unknown if a similar association exists in dogs.
Ten client-owned dogs with poorly regulated diabetes mellitus (DM) and PD were prospectively enrolled. A complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis and measurement of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fructosamine concentrations were performed before periodontal treatment (PT) and monthly thereafter for 3 months. A periodontal disease severity score (PDSS) was determined during PT. The effects of time post-PT and PDSS on markers of inflammation and glycaemic control were determined by generalised estimating equation analysis.
HbA1c (mean; 95% confidence interval [CI]) decreased 3 months post-PT (32.1 mmol/mol; 21.1-43.1 mmol/mol vs. 44.3 mmol/mol; 36.4-52.0; p = 0.003). PDSS at enrolment was significantly (p = 0.031) positively associated with HbA1c concentration. Due to a significant (p < 0.001) interaction between PDSS and time post-PT in the analysis of fructosamine, dogs with low (1-3) PDSS and high (7-9) PDSS were analysed separately. Fructosamine (mean; 95% CI) significantly decreased 1 month post-PT (570 μmol/L; 457-684 μmol/L vs. 624 μmol/L; 499-748; p = 0.001) in the high PDSS group but not in the low PDSS group. Fructosamine concentration upon enrolment and PDSS were correlated (r = 0.73, p = 0.017). IL-6 concentration significantly decreased 3 months post-PT (9.9 pg/mL; 8.5-11.3 pg/mL vs. 11.2 pg/mL; 9.7-12.7; p = 0.002).
In conclusions, these findings support a potential detrimental interaction between PD and DM. The apparent beneficial effect of PT on markers of glycaemic control was most conspicuous in dogs with more severe PD.
“Preliminary evaluation of the impact of periodontal treatment on markers of glycaemic control in dogs with diabetes mellitus: A prospective, clinical case series” Ran Nivy, et al. Vet Rec. 2023 Aug 22;e3310. doi: 10.1002/vetr.3310.